List 4 Conjunctions and Contrasting Definitions
ll cc when simply adversatively coordinate with preceding clause. "I have much to write to you, but I dont want to do so with pen and ink" (3 John 13).
ch 1. when preceding clause/phrase is negative, on the principle that the negative is subordinate to the positive in a -/+ contrast. "You arent thinking about the things of God, but the things of men" (Mark 8.33).
ch 2. when it heads the contraexpectation clause of a concession-contraexpectation construction. "I may be untrained in speech, but I do have knowledge" (2 Corinthians 11.6).
cs when introducing a parenthetical clause. " (but you are rich) " (Revelation 2.9).
ra, ch inferential, drawing a conclusion . "Consequently, you are Abrahams offspring" (Galatians 3.29).
raqt in questions as improbable possibility. "Will he find faith then?" (Luke 18.8).
Note Our analysis ofra is made without reference to the accenting in The Greek New Testament.
cri(v) cs when introducing a clause. "He should not deceive the nations any longer until the thousand years are up" (Revelation 20.3).
pg when followed by an object, includingoÆ. "Jerusalem will be trampled by the nations until their times are finished" (Luke 21.24). ( cri oÆ = until [the time in] which)
NoteAcri(v), pç, wv , and, m cr i(v), when followed by a relative pronoun, form a construction that acts like a conjunction.
grcs when introducing a subordinate grounds, reason, or explanatory clause. " for what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 1.20).
qs 1. when introducing a new sentence and highlighting the significance of the question, "What!" or "Why!" rather than providing a reason. "What bad thing has he done?" (Matthew 27.23).
qs 2. when making a strong affirmation, "indeed" or "by no/all means." "Surely not!" (Acts 16.37).
dcc equal prominence with preceding clause
ch greater prominence than preceding clause
cs lesser prominence than preceding clause
Note See discussion and extensive examples in 10.5 above.
diçtich inferential, drawing a conclusion. "Therefore, I declare to you today that " (Acts 20.26).
cs when introducing a subordinate causal clause. " because there wasn't any place for them to stay in the inn" (Luke 2.7).
ncs when conditional; corresponds to e¸ "If anyone serves me, he must follow me" (John 12.26).
qv when contingent; equivalent ton. "I will follow you wherever you go" (Matthew 8.19).
e¸abr equivalent to cc but with specific antecedent present. "This is commendable, that a man bears up under the pain of unjust suffering" (1 Peter 2.19).
cc sentential noun clause. "It would be better for him that he had not been born" (Matthew 26.24).
cs regular conditional. "If Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless" (1 Corinthians 15.14).
qt "whether," both in direct and indirect questions. "I asked whether he would be willing to go to Jerusalem" (Acts 25.20).
Note See discussion in 10.6 above about sentential noun clauses (e¸, abr and cc).
e¹tecc when introducing a second or another specification of a series, other than the first. "If it is serving, or if it is teaching " (Romans 12.7).
cs when alone, indicating a condition. "If anyone speaks in a tongue " (1 Corinthians 14.27).
cs+ when introducing the first of a pair or series of correlative specifications. "Whether Paul or Apollos or " (1 Corinthians 3.22).
wvcs when introducing a clause. "Until I come, attend to the reading" (1 Timothy 4.13).
pg when followed by an object, includingoÆ . "...who will also keep you until the end" (1 Corinthians 1.8).
(wv oÆ = until [the time in] which)
Note See note on cri(v) above.
Øcc disjunctive "or." " with whom there is no change or turning shadow" (James 1.17).
cc+ when the first ("either") member of an either/or combination. "For he will either " (Matthew 6.24).
ch when introducing an item of greater prominence or importance. "Did you receive the Spirit by your own efforts at doing the law or by believing what you heard?" (Galatians 3.2).
cs comparative "than." "The one in you is greater than the one in the world" (1 John 4.4).
´naabr 1. equivalent to cc1 but with specific antecedent present. "How did this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?" (Luke 1.43).
abr 2. equivalent to cc2 but with specific antecedent present. "We have this commandment from him, that the one who loves God should also love his brothers (1 John 4.21).
cc 1. sentential noun clause. "You have no need of anyone teaching you" (1 John 2.27).
cc 2. indirect command, where the orienter and indirect command seem equally prominent. "We ask and urge you in the Lord Jesus that you walk more and more in the way we instructed you and in the way you are in fact walking" (1 Thessalonians 4.1).
cs purpose. " good works, which God previously prepared in order that we should walk in them" (Ephesians 2.10).
ch 1. indirect command, where the command seems more prominent than its orienter (the orienter is usually virtually missing). "Come, lay your hands on her" (Mark 5.23, first´na).
ch 2. result. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just with the result that he will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness" (1 John 1.9).
ch 3. fulfillment of Scripture. "This all happened (with the result) that the word spoken by the Lord through the prophet was fulfilled" (Matthew 1.22).
Note See discussion in 10.6 above about sentential noun clauses (´na abr and cc) and orienters.
ka°ab adverb, "also, even, indeed, too." "Today salvation has come to this house, because even he is a son of Abraham" (Luke 19.9).
cc connective "and." "Take his mina and give it to the one having ten minas" (Luke 19.24).
cc+ when marking the first item in a both/and construction. " the one able to destroy both soul and body in hell" (Matthew 10.28).
ch 1. when introducing a unit with a higher level of information, which in some way is the result of the preceding item, or is more prominent semantically. "The heavens were opened to him and he saw the Spirit of God descending" (Matthew 3.16).
ch 2. secondka° in ka° gneto ka° constructions in which the following noun clause is prominent compared to insipid gneto. "It happened that many tax collectors and sinners came and reclined with Jesus at table" (Matthew 9.10).
cs when introducing a unit which is of lesser importance semantically, as being parenthetical or explanatory. "Follow me and I will make you fishers of me" (Matthew 4.19).
Noteka° as a connective can relate its (following) clause to what precedes it as more prominent (ch), equally prominent (cc), or less prominent (cs) in the same way that d can. Except for words that accord with the definition above of ka° as ch2, all nonadverbial ka°s are analyzed in this volume simply as cc.
ka°toich when introducing a contraexpectation. " allowed all nations to go their own ways and yet did not allow himself to be left without a witness" (Acts 14.17).
cs when introducing a concession. " although his works were finished from the foundation of the world" (Hebrews 4.3).
mncc when item and response (or item and pair) bear equal prominence with respect to each other. Following pair need not be overtly marked with a conjunction (d or otherwise). "He will put the mn sheep on the right and the d goats on the left" (Matthew 25.33).
cs when item is less prominent than response (or pair). "Themn spirit is willing, but the d flesh is weak" (Mark 4.38).
qs when there is no pair in following structure. This may be an intentional intensifier, or it may occur when the author was apparently distracted from continuing with the response. "I made the first account, Theophilus, about everything ..." (Acts 1.1).
m cri(v) cs when introducing a clause. " until we all arrive at unity in the faith " (Ephesians 4.13).
pg when followed by an object, includingoÆ . "This generation will certainly not pass away until all these things happen" (Mark 13.30). (m cri oÆ = until [the time in] which)
Note See note on cri(v) above.
mÐqn "not." "For it would have been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness than to have known it and . . ." (2 Peter 2.21).
cc sentential noun clause. "I am afraid that somehow I have labored over you in vain" (Galatians 4.11).
cs negative purpose, "in order that not." "Watch out in order that you do not refuse the one speaking" (Hebrews 12.25).
qt rhetorical question particle. "Youre not greater than our father Jacob, are you?" (John 4.12).
Note See discussion in 10.6 above about sentential noun clauses (mÐ, cc) and in 11.2 about rhetorical questions.
mjdab "not even." "Many were gathered, so that there was no longer any room, not even at the door" (Mark 2.2).
cc "neither, nor." "Take along neither gold nor silver " (Matthew 10.9).
mÐpoteab "never." "A will is in force only when someone has died, for it never takes effect while the one who made it is living" (Hebrews 9.17).
cc sentential noun clause. "Let us be afraid that any of you be found to have fallen short of it" (Hebrews 4.1).
cs negative purpose, "in order that not." "No. So that you do not uproot the wheat while gathering the tares" (Matthew 13.29).
qt rhetorical-question particle, possibly improbable possibility. "The people were debating in their hearts about John whether he might perhaps be the Christ" (Luke 3.15).
Note See discussion in 10.6 above about sentential noun clauses (mÐpote, cc).
mÐtecc when the second or subsequent occurrence of a series of coordinate conjunctions. "Do not swear at all nor by the earth " (Matthew 5.35).
cc+ when the first occurrence of a series of coordinate conjunctions. "Do not swear at all, neither by heaven " (Matthew 5.34).
íqenabr equivalent to cs, but with a specific antecedent present. "We landed at Syracuse and remained three days from where having set sail, we arrived at Rhegium" (Acts 28.12-13).
ch inferential, drawing a conclusion. "So then, King Agrippa, I didnt disobey the heavenly vision" (Acts 26.19).
cs where there is no antecedent. "You reap where you dont sow" (Matthew 25.24).
êpouabr equivalent to cs, but with a specific antecedent present. "And these are the ones along the way where the word was sown" (Mark 4.15).
cs where there is no antecedent. "I will follow you wherever you go" (Luke 9.57).
êpwvabr 1. equivalent to cc 1 but with specific antecedent. " asking a favor of him, that he might call him to Jerusalem" (Acts 25.3).
abr 2. equivalent to cc 2 but with specific antecedent. "The things about Jesus of Nazareth that " (Luke 24.19-20).
cc 1. indirect command of equal prominence with orienter "While he was speaking, a Pharisee asked him to come eat with him" (Luke 11.37).
cc 2. sentential noun clause. The only example, Luke 24.19-20 in abr2 above, has an antecedent.
cs purpose. " who gave himself up for us in order that he might deliver us from this present evil age" (Galatians 1.4).
ch result. "Therefore I am sending you prophets and wise men and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify with the result that all the righteous blood shed on earth will come on you" (Matthew 23.34-35).
êtanabr equivalent to cs, but with a specific antecedent. "Then the end will come when he delivers the kingdom to God" (1 Corinthians 15.24).
cs when there is no antecedent. "But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth" (John 16.13).
êteabr equivalent to cs, but with a specific antecedent. "For there will be a time when they will not put up with sound teaching" (2 Timothy 4.3).
cs when there is no antecedent. "And when I heard and saw these things, I fell to worship" (Revelation 22.8).
êtiabr equivalent to. cc, but with a specific antecedent. "You know this, that all in Asia deserted me" (2 Timothy 1.15).
abt "why?" "His disciples questioned him privately, Why werent we able to drive it out? " (Mark 9.28).
cc content clause having equal prominence with orienter. This is really just a special case of sentential noun clause. "Therefore, when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that he was making and baptizing more disciples than John, he left Judea" (John 4.1, 3).
ch 1. content clause having greater prominence than its orienter. "Then Herod, seeing that he had been outwitted by the Magi, became very angry" (Matthew 2.16).
ch 2. result. "Then the Jews said to themselves, Where will this fellow go that we cannot find him?" (John 7.35).
cs cause, ground. "Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where he was crucified was near the city" (John 19.20).
Note See discussion in 10.6 above about sentential noun clauses (êti as abr, cc, ch).
oÆabr equivalent to cs except that there is a specific antecedent. "The eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go" (Matthew 28.16).
cs where adverbial (versus, relative clause), with no antecedent "Where sin increased, grace increased more" (Romans 5.20).
oÇdab "not even." "I have not even come by myself, but that one sent me" (John 8.42).
cc "neither, nor" " I did not run in vain nor did I labor in vain" (Philippians 2.16).
cc+ when the first occurrence of a series of coordinate conjunctions. "Don't you remember either the five loaves " (Matthew 16.9-10).
qt rhetorical-question particle. "You have read this scripture, havent you?"(Mark 12.10).
oÊncc resumptive, continuative, introducing a new topic. "So the sisters sent word to him saying " (John 11.3).
ch inferential, drawing a conclusion, expectable consequence, result. "Therefore, whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do everything to Gods glory" (1 Corinthians 10.31).
qs when marking some degree of emphasis. "So then my manner of life " (Acts 26.4).
oÈtecc when second or subsequent occurrence of a series of coordinate conjunctions. " nor rust" (Matthew 6.20).
cc+ when first occurrence of a series of coordinate conjunctions. " neither moth " (Matthew 6.20).
pr°nab when functioning adverbially and followed by Ø (cs). "But before they were married" (Matthew 1.18).
cs when functioning as a temporal conjunction. "Before a rooster crows " (Matthew 26.34).
plÐncc "except, but." "But it is necessary for me to continue today, tomorrow, and the day after" (Luke 13.33).
ch "except, but" (with prominence over preceding clause). "But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon " (Matthew 11.22).
pg with noun object. " there is no one else but him" ( Mark 12.32).
pòv, ab adverbial, "how." "How difficult it will be for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!" (Mark 10.23).
pðv abi "somehow, in some way" (unaccented). " if somehow I may reach the resurrection of the dead" (Philippians 3. 11).
abt "how, in what way" "how is it possible." " that you may know how to answer everyone" (Colossians 4.6).
cc sentential noun clause. "And he reported to us that he saw an angel in his house" (Acts 11.13).
tab when used as an intensifier. "Even their women " (Romans 1.26).
cc when conjoining similar units. "Taking a sponge and filling it with vinegar " (Matthew 27.48).
cc+ when the first in a set of coordinate conjunctions. " both good and bad" (Matthew 22.10).
ch when introducing a higher-level clause. "They were cut to the heart and said " (Acts 2.37).
cs when introducing a lower-level clause, such as a parenthesis. "(a group numbering some one hundred twenty)" (Acts 1.15).
óvab 1. "approximately," usually followed by a numeral. "There was an interval of about three hours" (Acts 5.7).
ab 2. "how" in exclamations. "How unsearchable his judgments and his ways beyond searching out!" (Romans 11.33).
ab 3. with comparatives and superlatives. "I see how very religious you are in everything" (Acts 17.22).
abr 1. equivalent to cc but with specific antecedent. " and who gave us the ministry of reconciliation, which (is) that God was in Christ " (2 Corinthians 5.18-19).
abr 2. equivalent to cs2 but with specific antecedent. "What was the time when this happened?" (Mark 9.21).
cc 1. sentential noun clause. " he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him" (Matthew 1.24).
cc 2. content clause having equal prominence with orienter. This is really just a special case of sentential noun clause. "They related the things that happened on the way and that he became known to them as he broke the bread" (Luke 24.35).
ch content clause having greater prominence than orienter. "Just as you know that we exhorted each one of you " (1 Thessalonians 2. 11).
cs 1. purpose. "They entered a village of the Samaritans in order to prepare for him" (Luke 9.52).
cs 2. temporal: "when, while, as." "When he stopped speaking, he said to Simon " (Luke 5.4).
cs 3. comparison, "like, as." The clause need not have an overt verb present. "Love your neighbor as (you love) yourself" (Matthew 22.39).
óse°ab "about," usually with a numeral. "There were about twelve men" (Acts 19.7).
cs comparison, "like, as." "He saw the Spirit of God coming down like a dove" (Matthew 3.16).
ôstech 1. inferential, drawing a conclusion, "for this reason, therefore." "Therefore, work out your own salvation " (Philippians 2.12).
ch 2. result, "with the result that." "A crowd came together again with the result that they were not able to eat" (Mark 3.20).
cs purpose, "so that, in order that." "They sent spies in order to deliver him over to the governor" (Luke 20.20).